1. The Geneva Conventions refer to a number of agreements concerning the future of Vietnam. They were elaborated during multilateral discussions in Geneva between March and July 1954. Geneva Convention, Compendium of Documents on Indochina and published by the Geneva Conference from 26 April to 21 July 1954, in which representatives of Cambodia, the People`s Republic of China, France, Laos, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, the Viet Minh (i.e. the North Vietnamese) and the State of Vietnam (i.e. the South Vietnamese) participated. The 10 documents – none of which were a treaty binding the participants – consisted of 3 military agreements, 6 unilateral declarations and a final declaration of the Geneva Conference (21 July 1954). The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols constitute a body of international law, also known as the humanitarian law of armed conflict, whose purpose is to ensure minimum protection, standards of humane treatment and fundamental guarantees of respect for persons affected by armed conflict. The Geneva Conventions are a set of treaties on the treatment of civilians, prisoners of war and soldiers who are otherwise rendered hors de combat (French, literally “hors combat") or incapable. The first convention was initiated by the International Committee of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (ICRC). This convention led to a treaty designed to protect wounded and sick soldiers during the war. The Swiss government agreed to hold the conventions in Geneva, and a few years later a similar agreement was reached to protect the shipwrecked soldiers. In 1949, after the Second World War, two new conventions were added and the Geneva Conventions entered into force on 21 October 1950.
Ratification has grown steadily over the decades: 74 states ratified the conventions in the 1950s, 48 states did so in the 1960s, 20 states signed in the 1970s, and another 20 states did so in the 1980s. Twenty-six countries ratified the conventions in the early 1990s, particularly after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia and the former Yugoslavia. Seven new ratifications since 2000 have brought the total number of States parties to 194, making the Geneva Conventions universally applicable. While the Geneva Conventions of 1949 have generally been ratified, the Additional Protocols have not. At present, 168 States are parties to Additional Protocol I and 164 States to Additional Protocol II, making the 1977 Additional Protocols one of the most widely used legal instruments in the world. This Convention is the fourth updated version of the Geneva Convention on the Wounded and Sick after the Conventions adopted in 1864, 1906 and 1929. It contains 64 articles. They ensure the protection of the wounded and sick, but also medical and religious personnel, medical units and medical transport. The Convention also recognizes distinctive emblems. It contains two annexes with a draft agreement on hospital areas and a model map for medical and religious personnel. The Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols constitute the core of international humanitarian law, the international law that governs the conduct of armed conflicts and seeks to limit its effects.
In particular, they protect persons who are not taking part in hostilities (civilians, health workers and development workers) and those who are no longer taking part in hostilities, such as wounded, sick and shipwrecked soldiers and prisoners of war. The Conventions and their Protocols call for measures to prevent or put an end to all offences. They contain strict rules for dealing with so-called “serious violations." Those responsible for serious violations must be sought, tried or extradited, regardless of their nationality. Discussions on the Vietnam issue began at the conference when the France suffered its worst military defeat of the war when Vietnamese forces captured the French base at Dien Bien Phu. In July 1954, the Geneva Conventions were signed. As part of the agreement, the French agreed to withdraw their troops from North Vietnam. Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel until elections are held within two years to elect a president and reunify the country. During these two years, no foreign troops were able to invade Vietnam.
Ho reluctantly signed the deal, although he believed it was deceiving him of the spoils of his victory. The non-communist puppet government installed by the French in South Vietnam refused to sign, but without French support, this was not a concern at the time. The United States also refused to sign, but pledged to abide by the agreement. There were also divisions and disagreements within the communist bloc. China and the Soviet Union, for their own strategic reasons, refused to support the Viet Minh`s claim to rule all of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh`s chief negotiator, Pham Van Dong, has chosen not to ally too closely with Moscow or Beijing, preferring that northern Vietnam keep its own destiny in its hands. The Geneva Conventions include four treaties and three additional protocols that set international standards for humanitarian treatment in times of war. The singular term Geneva Convention generally refers to the 1949 conventions negotiated after World War II (1939-1945), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties and added two new conventions. The Geneva Conventions defined in detail the fundamental rights of prisoners of war (civilian and military), established protection for the wounded and sick, and established protection for the civilian population in and around a war zone. The 1949 treaties were ratified in full or with reservations by 196 countries.
 In addition, the Geneva Convention also defines the rights and protection granted to non-combatants. The Geneva Conventions concern soldiers at war; they do not deal with the actual conduct of war – the use of weapons of war – which is the subject of the Hague Conventions[a] and the Geneva Protocol on Biochemical Warfare. [b] The Geneva Conference lasted until 21 July before reaching a formal agreement. Among the terms of the Geneva Conventions were the following: most of the nine participating countries committed to guaranteeing the agreements, but the United States made it clear that it was not bound by them. The South Vietnamese also refused to give their consent, and the final declaration was signed by all parties. The U.S. government pledged to establish a separate anti-communist state in South Vietnam, and in 1956 supported South Vietnam`s refusal to hold national elections in consultation with North Vietnam. Our editors will review what you have submitted and decide if you want to review the article. The elaboration of the Geneva Conventions was closely linked to the Red Cross, whose founder Henri Dunant was at the origin of international negotiations that led to the Convention for the Improvement of the Wounded in Time of War in 1864.
This Convention provided for (1) the immunity of all treatment facilities for wounded and sick soldiers and their personnel from capture and destruction, (2) the impartial reception and treatment of all combatants, (3) the protection of civilians assisting the wounded, and (4) the recognition of the Red Cross Symbol as a means of identifying persons and equipment, which are covered by the agreement. In international law, the term convention does not have its common meaning as an assembly of persons. Rather, it is used in diplomacy to refer to an international agreement or treaty. Geneva Conventions, a series of international treaties concluded in Geneva between 1864 and 1949 to mitigate the effects of war on soldiers and civilians. Two additional protocols to the 1949 Agreement were approved in 1977. The Geneva Conventions adopted before 1949. only dealt with combatants, not civilians. The events of the Second World War showed the catastrophic consequences of the absence of a convention to protect civilians in time of war. The Convention, adopted in 1949, takes into account the experience of the Second World War. It consists of 159 articles.
It contains a short section on the general protection of the population from certain consequences of war, without mentioning the course of hostilities as such, which was subsequently discussed in the Additional Protocols of 1977. Most of the Convention deals with the status and treatment of protected persons and distinguishes between the situation of aliens in the territory of one of the parties to the conflict and the situation of civilians in the occupied territories. It lays down the obligations of the occupying Power towards the civilian population and contains detailed provisions on humanitarian assistance to the population of the occupied territories. It also contains specific regulations for the treatment of civilian internees […].